COMPETITION • FRENCH LAW • SCOPE OF APPLICATION
Trade unions are responsible for monitoring and defending the rights as well as the material and moral interests, both collective and individual, of the employees mentioned in their statutes (Labor Code, Art. L. 2131-1). Such unions are not exempt from the competition rules when they engage in economic activities distinct from their primary mission of defending the interests of their members. However, according to the case-law, the classification as an economic operator, and a fortiori as an undertaking, is excluded where the unions party to the agreement have only carried out a one-off action on the market.